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The Early Medieval Practice of Viking Raids

2014-Feb-27, 11:15

The Early Medieval Practice of Viking Raids

Viking raids were a characteristic of the Scandinavian early medieval pirates called the Vikings, particularly during the first 50 years of the Viking Age (793 850). Raiding as a lifestyle was first established in Scandinavia by the 6th century, as illustrated in the epic English tale of Beowulf. But, as population grew, and trading networks into Europe became established, the Vikings became aware of the wealth of their neighbors, both in silver and in land.

See the Guide to the Viking Age for more information

The earliest serious Viking raids were small in scope. Led by the Norwegians, the raids were on monasteries in Northumberland on the northeast coast of England, at Lindisfarne (793), Jarrow (794) and Wearmouth (794), and in the Orkney Islands of Scotland, at Iona (795). These raids were exclusively for money the Norwegians couldn't find enough money in the monastery stores, they ransomed the monks back to the church.

One reason the Viking raids succeeded so well was the comparative disarray of their neighbors. England was divided into five kingdoms when the Danish Great Army attacked; political chaos ruled the day in Ireland; the rulers of Constantinople were off fighting the Arabs; and Charlemagne's Holy Roman Empire was crumbling.

Archaeological evidence of the success of many of these raids the range of their booty capture found in the collections of Viking silver hoards, found buried all over northern Europe, and containing riches from all of the conquest lands.

See the entry on Viking silver hoards for more information.

By AD 850, Vikings were over wintering in England, Ireland and western Europe, and by the 860s, they had established strongholds and taken land, violently expanding their landholdings. By 865, the Viking raids were larger and more substantial. The Great Army was a fleet of Scandinavian warships that arrived in England in 865 and stayed for several years, running raids on cities on both sides of the English Channel. Eventually, the Great Army would settle what would be called the Danelaw.

Accounts of the size of the Great Army vary, but it is clear that hundreds of longboats were involved.

One half of England fell to the Vikings www.broncosonlineofficialshop.com/Authentic-Peyton-Manning-Jersey by 870. By 959, the settler Vikings are part of the English populace; but beginning in 980, a new wave of attacks from Norway and Denmark occurred. In 1016, King Cnut controlled all of England, Denmark and Norway. But in 1066, Harald Hardrada died at Stamford Bridge, essentially ending the Norse control of any lands outside of Scandinavia.

However, the Norse built settlements or took over existing towns, and, after 1066, eventually were peyton manning authentic jersey subsumed into the local cultures. Evidence for the impact of the Vikings is found in placenames, artifacts and other material culture, and in the DNA of today's residents all across northern Europe.

See peyton manning 5x jersey the Viking Timeline for more details

Barrett, James H. 2008 What caused the Viking Age? Antiquity 82:671 685.

Coupland, Simon 1995 The Vikings in Francia and Anglo Saxon England to 911. Chapter 7 in The New Cambridge Medieval History c.700 c.900, Rosamond McKitterick, editor. Pp. 190 201. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Goodacre, S., et al. 2005 Genetic evidence for a family based Scandinavian settlement of Shetland and Orkney during the Viking periods. Heredity 95:129 Steven B., Robert H. Tykot, and Dan Carlsson 2007 Stable isotopes peyton manning jersey as indicators of change in the food procurement and food preference of Viking Age and Early Christian populations on Gotland (Sweden). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26:394 Martin. 2006. The Vikings. Hambledon Continuum: London.

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The Best Books on Europe 1701

2014-Feb-27, 11:15

The Best Books on www.officialhockeyauthentic.com/womens-youth-bobby-hull-authentic-jersey-c-1_77_82.html Europe 1701

Just as some books examine a country or a region, others discuss the continent (or at least very large parts of it) as a whole. In such instances dates play a crucial factor in limiting the material; accordingly, these are my tops ten picks for pan European books covering the years c.1701 1918. Two other sets of top picks, for the years 1500 1700, Bobby Hull Jersey and 1919 1939, can be found via the links.

1. Eighteenth century Europe by Jeremy BlackBlack has tackled many historical themes in this well written and sweeping study of Europe which provides a perfect introduction for all readers; seek out the latest, second, edition, which has two new chapters. Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800 1914 by Robert GildeaPart of the 'Short Oxford History of the Modern World', this book contains a comprehensive examination of Europe in the nineteenth century. Gildea has combined political narrative with a series of thematic sections, including nationalism, population growth, industrialization and education.

3. The Old European Order 1660 1800 by William DoylePart of the same series as pick one, The Old European Order covers an extended eighteenth century. The text is largely thematic and analytical, and anyone wanting an exciting narrative will be disappointed; nevertheless, Doyle's focus on both social trends and the challenges faced by the early modern governments of Europe is a worthwhile read.

4. The Longman Handbook of Modern European History 1763 1997 by Chris CookBuying this book will arm you with an excellent range of timelines covering the history of many European countries glossaries, lists and figures, all of which will supplement an essay, answer a question or just expand your knowledge.

5. Peace, www.officialhockeyauthentic.com/womens-youth-denis-savard-authentic-jersey-c-1_77_101.html War and the European Powers discusses why these 'lapses' should have occurred, and why warfare eventually returned to Europe.

6. WilliamsWeighing in with a nice price to size ratio, William's book is an excellent guide to the political structures and characteristics of several countries, including Spain, France, Prussia and Britain, during the eighteenth century. Europe 1783 Denis Savard Jersey 1914 by William Simpson, Martin JonesTaking a definite textbook approach, this book's narrative of European history is accompanied by a range of primary and secondary documents, as well as maps, pictures and (political) cartoons. Analyses or just reminders of important themes and further reading are also included: good for younger students.

9. Revolutionary Europe, 1780 1850 by Jonathan SperberThis book may only cover seventy years, but what a seventy years! Europe experienced numerous rebellions, including the French revolution and the widespread uprisings of 1848. Sperber's text is a detailed, but concise, account of this period, concentrating on the revolutions and their inter relationships, as well as their effects on politics and individuals.

10. Nationalism in Europe 1789 1945 by Timothy BaycroftThe emergence, and development, of nationalist ideologies is a critical theme in modern history, and Baycroft's book provides a solid introduction to the subject. Primary and secondary materials are included, and topics range from the forms of nationalism underpinning various states to the effects of other, often competing, theories.

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Tammy is the newest member of the Action

2014-Feb-27, 11:15

Tammy www.officialhockeyauthentic.com/womens-youth-ville-leino-authentic-jersey-c-1_38_57.html Elliott

Tammy is the newest member of the Action 2 News This Morning team. She excited to join Kathryn Bracho, Kevin Rompa, and Steve Beylon to help people in Northeast Wisconsin start their day. Mornings are a welcome change for Tammy. She says, "It allows me to continue my career and be at home with my kids after school."

Talk about a shift in circadian rhythm, Tammy been a night owl in news. She most recently anchored 5 10pm newscasts at the CBS station in Green Bay. That where Tammy kicked off her journalism career in 1992. Working in her hometown gave Tammy an opportunity to be close to family. She worked in both TV and radio, and got a Ville Leino Jersey taste of early mornings co hosting with "Murphy in the Morning" at WIXX radio. Then in 2002 Tammy had an opportunity she couldn resist WBAY sister station, WISN in Milwaukee, came calling. Tammy was a newlywed and couldn wait to move to Milwaukee to be with her husband.

Tammy has been honored with two of broadcasting most prestigious honors, the international Peabody Award and the Edward R. Murrow Award. Her reports have earned many honors from the Wisconsin Broadcasters Association, Milwaukee Press Club, and Associated Press. In 2008 Tammy received national recognition from the International Association www.officialhockeyauthentic.com/womens-youth-luke-adam-authentic-jersey-c-1_38_59.html of Fire Fighters for an investigation into the death of Green Bay firefighter Arnie Wolff.

Tammy has followed the Packers to the Super Bowl, co hosted with Regis Philbin for a day, spent a week in Rome with New York Cardinal Timothy Dolan (then Milwaukee Archbishop), and returned to report live from Vatican City the week following the death of Pope John Paul II. She interviewed former First Lady Laura Bush, Oprah Winfrey, Brett Favre, Katie Couric, and Peter Jennings. She moved to Green Bay at a very young age. She attended Valley View Elementary, Ashwaubenon Middle and High school. in Communications. She was also a Badger cheerleader and still cheers them on today (from her living room and without the uniform!). She been involved with in numerous community events and fundraisers.

Tammy cherishes family time. She lives in De Pere with her husband Glen and their two children, 8 year old Lauren and 7 year old Carter. She loves being active; one of her family favorites is bike riding on the Fox River Trail with her kids.

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If you've ever seen photos of LeBron

2014-Feb-27, 11:15

Strike a pose

If you've ever seen photos of LeBron www.officialhockeyauthentic.com/womens-youth-christian-ehrhoff-authentic-jersey-c-1_38_56.html James away from the basketball court, it's obvious he takes great pride in his appearance.

In fact, he's widely considered one of the best dressed guys in the NBA perhaps even in all of sports. And that's why I can't understand why he would allow to feature him with supermodel Gisele Bundchen in such a distasteful manner.

In case you haven't seen the cover, LeBron has Gisele in one hand and a basketball in the other. LeBron is dressed in basketball gear, with his muscles flexing, tattoos showing and bared teeth. Gisele, on the other hand, is wearing a gorgeous slim fitting dress, and smiling.

She looks like she's on her way to something fashionable and exciting. He looks like he's on his Christian Ehrhoff Jersey way to a pickup game for serial killers.

Now, maybe the point was to show the contrast between brawn and beauty, masculinity versus femininity, strength versus grace. But 's quest to highlight the differences between superstar athletes and supermodels only successfully reinforces the animalistic stereotypes frequently associated with black athletes.

A black athlete being reduced to a savage is, sadly, nothing new. But this cover gave you the double bonus of having LeBron and Gisele strike poses that others in the blogosphere have noted draw a striking resemblance to the racially charged image of King Kong enveloping his very fair skinned lady love interest.

LeBron is just the third male ever to appear on 's cover, but it's hard to believe would have made Brett Favre, Steve Nash or even David Beckham strike his best beast pose. And even if had, it wouldn't carry the same racial undertones as having a fear inducing black man paired with a dainty damsel.

Too often, black athletes are presented as angry, overly aggressive and overly sexual. Or sometimes, they're just plain emasculated.

The examples of this are endless. The 2002 Sports Illustrated cover that featured Charles Barkley chained like a slave. Ricky Williams wearing a wedding dress on an ESPN The Magazine cover in 1999. And while it didn't appear in a magazine, the Terrell Owens Nicolette Sheridan intimate encounter tease for "Monday Night Football" gave viewers a sexualized image of a black man.

In fact, the shirtless black male athlete cover is pretty much a staple, reinforcing the idea that black athletes were blessed with physical characteristics, not mental ones.

"Society has become more civilized, more humane over 150 years or so, and that's all fine and good," said Dr. "The practice of stripping black males above the waist and displaying him is as American as apple pie."

But we don't even have to dip back to the 19th century to see how images of black athletes have affected how we think and thus how we view sports. In 1994, Jack Nicklaus said there weren't more African Americans in golf because "blacks have different muscles that react in different ways."

And that backward thinking isn't limited to whites, either. Former ESPN NFL analyst Michael Irvin channeled his inner Jimmy the Greek when attempting to explain Tony Romo's abilities. Irvin surmised that Romo was good because his "great, great, great, great grandma pulled one of them studs up outta the barn [and said], 'Come here for a second.'"

It's like Barack Obama said in his much talked about speech on race Tuesday. We know so Pat Lafontaine Jersey little about one another. Even scarier, we know even less about the fallout of racist history.

"It's a great, great issue that www.officialhockeyauthentic.com/womens-youth-pat-lafontaine-authentic-jersey-c-1_38_51.html has made trivial," Hoberman said. "It's exploitative. It's going for the primitive, racial emotion as opposed to something tasteful and edifying."

deserves criticism, but more blame should go to LeBron and other black athletes, who need to exercise stricter control of their images. If LeBron is brave enough to wear a Yankees cap at an Indians playoff game, picking up a history book and educating himself shouldn't cause a strain.

This isn't to say 's cover deserves to be in the same category as Golfweek magazine, which featured a noose on its front during the Kelly Tilghman Tiger Woods flap. But as always, it's important to question who was in the room when the cover decisions were made.

As it is, LeBron was the first African American male to grace 's cover. Too bad it will be memorable for the wrong reasons.

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The Vikings are Charting New Courses for 2013

2014-Feb-27, 11:15

The Vikings wholesale jerseys are Charting New Courses for 2013

The company will launch eight new longships in 2013. Expansion will include four new itineraries, among them a 23 day European Soujourn from Basel to Budapest.

The new ships have integrated innovations such as diesel electric hybrid engines, solar panels and onboard organic herb gardens.

"Our new Viking Longships have been amazingly popular this year. In 2013, we will launch an additional eight vessels for a total of 14 Longships in our fleet," said Torstein Hagen, founder and Chairman of Viking River Cruises.

Viking Riverboat Cruises also announced two new land extensions, Oxford Highclere Castle (The Real "Downton Abbey") and Barcelona.

Viking already runs cruises in several regions, including Africa, Asia, Russia and the Ukraine and there are many excursions to choose from depending on the destination.

Prices for the Viking Tulips Windmills Tour start at $2,772 (all figures USD) pp for 10 Days over two Countries. Go on an excursion and check out the windmills at UNESCO Mill Network at Kinderdijk Elshout, try some pesto cheese in the beautiful city of Edam or walk in the shoes of Van Gogh at his birthplace in Zundert.

Viking held a christening reception last March in Amsterdam to welcome four new ships to the Viking fleet.

Viking Wholesale NFL Jerseys Odin, Viking Idun, Viking Njord, and Viking Freya all named after Viking gods are designed by maritime architects Yran Storbraaten, the same team behind the Disney Dream and the Yachts of Seabourn.

Features include 95 outside staterooms, a sun deck with 360 degree views and shaded sitting area, an observation lounge and bar with glass doors and a restaurant with floor to ceiling windows for panoramic views.

This experience is geared toward the more affluent traveller and the prices reflect that. The riverboat's smaller size in comparison to larger cruise liners creates a less rushed experience. Getting off and on the longboat to go for excursions is much easier and quicker than a large cruiser.

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